Design - Wikipedia


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Design (disambiguation) . Drafting of a plan or specification for the construction of an object or of a system; process of creation; act of creativity and innovation

A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype , product or process . The verb to design expresses the process of developing a design. In some cases, the direct construction of an object without an explicit prior plan (such as in craftwork, some engineering, coding, and graphic design) may also be considered to be a design activity. The design usually has to satisfy certain goals and constraints, may take into account aesthetic, functional, economic, or socio-political considerations, and is expected to interact with a certain environment . Major examples of designs include architectural blueprints , engineering drawings , business processes , circuit diagrams , and sewing patterns . [1]

The person who produces a design is called a designer , which is a term generally used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas—usually specifying which area is being dealt with (such as a fashion designer , product designer , web designer or interior designer ), but also others such as architects and engineers. A designer's sequence of activities is called a design process, possibly using design methods . The process of creating a design can be brief (a quick sketch) or lengthy and complicated, involving considerable research, negotiation, reflection, modeling , interactive adjustment and re-design.


1 Design as a process 1.1 The rational model 1.1.1 Example sequence of stages 1.1.2 Criticism of the rational model 1.2 The action-centric model 1.2.1 Descriptions of design activities 2 Philosophies of design 2.1 Approaches to design 3 Types 3.1 Design and art 3.2 Design and engineering 3.3 Design and production 3.4 Process design 4 Design disciplines 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography

Design as a process [ edit ]

Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, produce designs. [2] Kees Dorst and Judith Dijkhuis, both designers themselves, argued that "there are many ways of describing design processes" and discussed "two basic and fundamentally different ways", [3] both of which have several names. The prevailing view has been called "the rational model", [4] "technical problem solving" [5] and "the reason-centric perspective". [6] The alternative view has been called "reflection-in-action", [5] "co-evolution", [7] and "the action-centric perspective". [6]

The rational model [ edit ]

The rational model was independently developed by Herbert A. Simon , [8] [9] an American scientist, and two German engineering design theorists, Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz. [10] It posits that:

Designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and objectives . The design process is plan-driven. The design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages.

The rational model is based on a rationalist philosophy [4] and underlies the waterfall model , [11] systems development life cycle , [12] and much of the engineering design literature. [13] According to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner.

Example sequence of stages [ edit ]

Typical stages consistent with the rational model include the following:

Pre-production design Design brief or Parti pris – an early (often the beginning) statement of design goals Analysis – analysis of current design goals Research – investigating similar design solutions in the field or related topics Specification – specifying requirements of a design solution for a product ( product design specification ) [14] or service. Problem solving – conceptualizing and documenting design solutions Presentation – presenting design solutions Design during production Development – continuation and improvement of a designed solution Testing – in situ testing of a designed solution Post-production design feedback for future designs Implementation – introducing the designed solution into the environment Evaluation and conclusion – summary of process and results, including constructive criticism and suggestions for future improvements Redesign – any or all stages in the design process repeated (with corrections made) at any time before, during, or after production.

Each stage has many associated best practices . [15]

Criticism of the rational model [ edit ]

The rational model has been widely criticized on two primary grounds:

Designers do not work this way – extensive empirical evidence has demonstrated that designers do not act as the rational model suggests. [5] [6] [16] Unrealistic assumptions – goals are often unknown when a design project begins, and the requirements and constraints continue to change. [4] [17]

The action-centric model [ edit ]

The action-centric perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to the rational model. [6] It posits that:

Designers use creativity and emotion to generate design candidates. The design process is improvised . No universal sequence of stages is apparent – analysis, design and implementation are contemporary and inextricably linked. [6]

The action-centric perspective is based on an empiricist philosophy and broadly consistent with the agile approach [18] and a methodical development. [19] Substantial empirical evidence supports the veracity of this perspective in describing the actions of real designers. [16] Like the rational model, the action-centric model sees design as informed by research and knowledge. However, research and knowledge are brought into the design process through the judgment and common sense of designers – by designers "thinking on their feet" – more than through the predictable and controlled process stipulated by the rational model.

Descriptions of design activities [ edit ]

At least two views of design activity are consistent with the action-centric perspective. Both involve three basic activities.

In the reflection-in-action paradigm , designers alternate between " framing ", "making moves", and "evaluating moves". "Framing" refers to conceptualizing the problem, i.e., defining goals and objectives. A "move" is a tentative design decision. The evaluation process may lead to further moves in the design. [5]

In the sensemaking–coevolution–implementation framework, designers alternate between its three titular activities. Sensemaking includes both framing and evaluating moves. Implementation is the process of constructing the design object. Coevolution is "the process where the design agent simultaneously refines its mental picture of the design object based on its mental picture of the context, and vice versa". [6]

The concept of the design cycle is understood as a circular time structure, [20] which may start with the thinking of an idea, then expressing it by the use of visual or verbal means of communication (design tools), the sharing and perceiving of the expressed idea, and finally starting a new cycle with the critical rethinking of the perceived idea. Anderson points out that this concept emphasizes the importance of the means of expression, which at the same time are means of perception of any design ideas. [21]

Philosophies of design [ edit ]

Philosophy of design is the study of definitions of design, and the assumptions, foundations, and implications of design. There are also countless informal or personal philosophies for guiding design as design values and its accompanying aspects within modern design vary, both between different schools of thought [ which? ] and among practicing designers. [22] Design philosophies are usually for determining design goals. In this sense, design philosophies are fundamental guiding principles that dictate how a designer approaches his/her practice. For example, reflections on material culture and environmental concerns ( sustainable design ) can guide a design philosophy.

Approaches to design [ edit ]

A design approach is a general philosophy that may or may not include a guide for specific methods. Some are to guide the overall goal of the design. Other approaches are to guide the tendencies of the designer.

Some of these approaches include:

Critical design uses designed artifacts as an embodied critique or commentary on existing values, morals, and practices in a culture. Participatory Design (originally co-operative design, now often co-design) is the practice of collective creativity to design, attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable. [23] Scientific design refers to industrialised design based on scientific knowledge. [24] Science can be used to study the effects and need for a potential or existing product in general and to design products that are based on scientific knowledge. For instance, a scientific design of face masks for COVID-19 mitigation may be based on investigations of filtration performance, mitigation performance, [25] [26] thermal comfort, biodegradability and flow resistance. [27] [28] Service design designing or organizing the experience around a product and the service associated with a product's use. Sociotechnical system design, a philosophy and tools for participative designing of work arrangements and supporting processes – for organizational purpose, quality, safety, economics and customer requirements in core work processes, the quality of peoples experience at work and the needs of society Transgenerational design , the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living. User-centered design , which focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of the designed artifact.

Types [ edit ]

Design can broadly be applied to various fields such as art, engineering and production.

The new terminal at Barajas airport in Madrid , Spain

Design and art [ edit ]

Today, the term design is generally used for what was formerly called the applied arts . The new term, for a very old thing, was perhaps initiated by Raymond Loewy and teachings at the Bauhaus and Ulm School of Design in Germany during the 20th century.

The boundaries between art and design are blurred, largely due to a range of applications both for the term 'art' and the term 'design'. Applied arts can include industrial design , graphic design , fashion design , and the decorative arts which traditionally includes craft objects. In graphic arts (2D image making that ranges from photography to illustration), the distinction is often made between fine art and commercial art , based on the context within which the work is produced and how it is traded.

Some methods for creating work, such as employing intuition, are shared across the disciplines within the applied arts and fine art . Mark Getlein, writer, suggests the principles of design are "almost instinctive", "built-in", "natural", and part of "our sense of 'rightness'." [29] However, the intended application and context of the resulting works will vary greatly.

A drawing for a booster engine for steam locomotives . Engineering is applied to design, with emphasis on function and the utilization of mathematics and science.

Design and engineering [ edit ]

In engineering , design is a component of the process. Many overlapping methods and processes can be seen when comparing Product design , Industrial design and Engineering . The American Heritage Dictionary defines design as: "To conceive or fashion in the mind; invent," and "To formulate a plan" , and defines engineering as: "The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems." . [30] [31] Both are forms of problem-solving with a defined distinction being the application of "scientific and mathematical principles". The increasingly scientific focus of engineering in practice, however, has raised the importance of more new "human-centered" fields of design. [32] How much science is applied in a design is a question of what is considered " science ". Along with the question of what is considered science, there is social science versus natural science . Scientists at Xerox PARC made the distinction of design versus engineering at "moving minds" versus "moving atoms" (probably in contradiction to the origin of term "engineering – engineer" from Latin "in genio" in meaning of a "genius" what assumes existence of a "mind" not of an "atom").

Jonathan Ive has received several awards for his design of Apple Inc. products like this MacBook. In some design fields, personal computers are also used for both design and production

Design and production [ edit ]

The relationship between design and production is one of planning and executing. In theory, the plan should anticipate and compensate for potential problems in the execution process. Design involves problem-solving and creativity . In contrast, production involves a routine or pre-planned process. A design may also be a mere plan that does not include a production or engineering processes although a working knowledge of such processes is usually expected of designers. In some cases, it may be unnecessary or impractical to expect a designer with a broad multidisciplinary knowledge required for such designs to also have a detailed specialized knowledge of how to produce the product.

Design and production are intertwined in many creative professional careers, meaning problem-solving is part of execution and the reverse. As the cost of rearrangement increases, the need for separating design from production increases as well. For example, a high-budget project, such as a skyscraper , requires separating (design) architecture from (production) construction . A Low-budget project, such as a locally printed office party invitation flyer , can be rearranged and printed dozens of times at the low cost of a few sheets of paper, few drops of ink, and less than one hour's pay of a desktop publisher .

This is not to say that production never involves problem-solving or creativity, nor that design always involves creativity. Designs are rarely perfect and are sometimes repetitive. The imperfection of a design may task a production position (e.g. production artist , construction worker ) with utilizing creativity or problem-solving skills to compensate for what was overlooked in the design process. Likewise, a design may be a simple repetition (copy) of a known preexisting solution, requiring minimal, if any, creativity or problem-solving skills from the designer.

An example of a business workflow process using Business Process Model and Notation .

Process design [ edit ]

See also: Business process management and Method engineering

"Process design" (in contrast to "design process" mentioned above ) is to the planning of routine steps of a process aside from the expected result. Processes (in general) are treated as a product of design, not the method of design. The term originated with the industrial designing of chemical processes . With the increasing complexities of the information age , consultants and executives have found the term useful to describe the design of business processes as well as manufacturing processes . [33]

Design disciplines [ edit ]

Applied arts Architecture Automotive design Biological design Cartographic or map design Configuration design Communication design Costume design Design management Engineering design Experience design Fashion design Floral design Game design Graphic design Information architecture Information design Industrial design Instructional design Interaction design Interior design Landscape architecture Lighting design Modular design Motion graphic design Organization design Process design Product design Production design Property design Scenic design Service design Social design Software design Sound design Spatial design Strategic design Systems architecture Systems design Systems modeling Urban design User experience design User interface design Vexillography Web design

See also [ edit ]

Design-based learning Design methods Design research Design science Design theory Design thinking Design prototyping Evidence-based design Visual design elements and principles List of design awards

References [ edit ]

^ Dictionary meanings in the Cambridge Dictionary of American English , at (esp. meanings 1–5 and 7–8) and at AskOxford (especially verbs). ^ Coyne, Richard (1990). "Logic of design actions" . Knowledge-Based Systems . 3 (4): 242–257. doi : 10.1016/0950-7051(90)90103-o . ISSN 0950-7051 . ^ Dorst, Kees; Dijkhuis, Judith (1995). "Comparing paradigms for describing design activity" . Design Studies . 16 (2): 261–274. doi : 10.1016/0142-694X(94)00012-3 . ^ a b c Brooks, F.P. (2010) The design of design: Essays from a computer scientist , Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-201-36298-8 . ^ a b c d Schön, D.A. (1983) The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action , Basic Books, USA. ^ a b c d e f Ralph, P. (2010) "Comparing two software design process theories". International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology (DESRIST 2010), Springer, St. Gallen, Switzerland, pp. 139–153. doi : 10.1007/978-3-642-13335-0_10 . ^ Dorst, Kees; Cross, Nigel (2001). "Creativity in the design process: Co-evolution of problem–solution" (PDF) . Design Studies . 22 (5): 425–437. doi : 10.1016/S0142-694X(01)00009-6 . ^ Newell, A., and Simon, H. (1972) Human problem solving , Prentice-Hall, Inc. ^ Simon, H.A. (1996) The sciences of the artificial , MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. p. 111. ISBN 0-262-69191-4 . ^ Pahl, G., and Beitz, W. (1996) Engineering design: A systematic approach , Springer-Verlag, London. ISBN 3-540-19917-9 . ^ Royce, W.W. (1970) "Managing the development of large software systems: Concepts and techniques," Proceedings of Wescon. ^ Bourque, P., and Dupuis, R. (eds.) (2004) Guide to the software engineering body of knowledge (SWEBOK). IEEE Computer Society Press, ISBN 0-7695-2330-7 . ^ Pahl, G., Beitz, W., Feldhusen, J., and Grote, K.-H. (2007 ) Engineering design: A systematic approach , (3rd ed.), Springer-Verlag, ISBN 1-84628-318-3 . ^ Cross, N., (2006). T211 Design and Designing: Block 2 , p. 99. Milton Keynes: The Open University. ^ Ullman, David G. (2009) The Mechanical Design Process , Mc Graw Hill, 4th edition ISBN 0-07-297574-1 ^ a b Cross, N., Dorst, K., and Roozenburg, N. (1992) Research in design thinking , Delft University Press, Delft. ISBN 90-6275-796-0 . ^ McCracken, D.D.; Jackson, M.A. (1982). "Life cycle concept considered harmful" . ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes . 7 (2): 29–32. doi : 10.1145/1005937.1005943 . S2CID 9323694 . ^ Beck, K., Beedle, M., van Bennekum, A., Cockburn, A., Cunningham, W., Fowler, M., Grenning, J., Highsmith, J., Hunt, A., Jeffries, R., Kern, J., Marick, B., Martin, R.C., Mellor, S., Schwaber, K., Sutherland, J., and Thomas, D. (2001) Manifesto for agile software development . ^ Truex, D.; Baskerville, R.; and Travis, J. (2000). "Amethodical systems development: The deferred meaning of systems development methods". Accounting, Management and Information Technologies . 10 (1): 53–79. doi : 10.1016/S0959-8022(99)00009-0 . ^ Fischer, Thomas "Design Enigma. A typographical metaphor for enigmatic processes, including designing", in: T. Fischer, K. De Biswas, J.J. Ham, R. Naka, W.X. Huang, Beyond Codes and Pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia , p. 686 ^ Anderson, Jane (2011) Architectural Design , Basics Architecture 03, Lausanne, AVA academia, p. 40. ISBN 978-2-940411-26-9 . ^ Holm, Ivar (2006). Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial design: How attitudes, orientations and underlying assumptions shape the built environment . Oslo School of Architecture and Design. ISBN 82-547-0174-1 . ^ "Co-creation and the new landscape of design" (PDF) . ^ Cross, Nigel (1 June 1993). "Science and design methodology: A review" . Research in Engineering Design . 5 (2): 63–69. doi : 10.1007/BF02032575 . ISSN 1435-6066 . Retrieved 16 April 2021 . ^ "Face shields, masks with valves ineffective against COVID-19 spread: study" . . Retrieved 8 October 2020 . ^ Verma, Siddhartha; Dhanak, Manhar; Frankenfield, John (1 September 2020). "Visualizing droplet dispersal for face shields and masks with exhalation valves" . Physics of Fluids . 32 (9): 091701. doi : 10.1063/5.0022968 . ISSN 1070-6631 . PMC 7497716 . PMID 32952381 . ^ "Face masks slow spread of COVID-19; types of masks, length of use matter" . . Retrieved 9 December 2020 . ^ Kumar, Sanjay; Lee, Heow Pueh (李孝培) (1 November 2020). "The perspective of fluid flow behavior of respiratory droplets and aerosols through the facemasks in context of SARS-CoV-2" . Physics of Fluids . 32 (11): 111301. arXiv : 2010.06385 . doi : 10.1063/5.0029767 . ISSN 1070-6631 . PMC 7713871 . PMID 33281434 . Retrieved 9 December 2020 . ^ Getlein, Mark (2008) Living With Art , 8th ed. New York, p. 121. ^ American Psychological Association (APA): design Archived 2007-01-08 at the Wayback Machine . The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved January 10, 2007 ^ American Psychological Association (APA): engineering Archived 2007-01-02 at the Wayback Machine . The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved January 10, 2007 ^ Faste, R. (2001). "The Human Challenge in Engineering Design" (PDF) . International Journal of Engineering Education . 17 (4–5): 327–331. ^ Larby, Bryan Williams, Louise Attwood, Pauline Treuherz, Ian Fawcett, Dan Hughes, Dave. (2017). AQA GCSE (9-1) Design and Technology . Hodder Education Group. ISBN 978-1-5104-0207-2 . OCLC 1007922727 . CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link )

Bibliography [ edit ]

Look up design in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Design Wikimedia Commons has media related to Design . Library resources about
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design Experience design EED Game design Level design Video game design Hardware interface design Icon design Immersive design Information design Sonic interaction design User experience design User interface design Web design Other
applied arts Public art design Ceramic / glass design Fashion design Costume design Jewellery design Floral design Game art design Property design Scenic design Sound design Stage/set lighting design Textile design Other
& engineering Algorithm design Behavioural design Boiler design Database design Drug design Electrical system design Experimental design Filter design Geometric design Work design Integrated circuit design Circuit design Physical design Power network design Mechanism design Nuclear weapon design Nucleic acid design Organization design Process design Processor design Protein design Research design Social design Software design Spacecraft design Strategic design Systems design Approaches Activity-centered Adaptive web Affective Brainstorming By committee By contract C-K theory Closure Co-design Concept-oriented Configuration Contextual Continuous Cradle-to-cradle Creative problem-solving Creativity techniques Critical Design fiction Defensive Design–bid–build Design–build architect-led Diffuse Domain-driven Ecological design Energy neutral Engineering design process Probabilistic design Error-tolerant Fault-tolerant Framework-oriented For assembly For behaviour change For manufacturability For Six Sigma For testing For X Functional Generative Geodesign HCD High-level Inclusive Integrated Integrated topside Intelligence-based Iterative KISS principle Low-level Metadesign Mind mapping Modular New Wave Object-oriented Open Parametric Participatory Platform-based Policy-based Process-centered Public interest Rational Regenerative Reliability engineering Research-based Responsibility-driven RWD Safe-life Sustainable Systemic SOD Tableless web Theory of constraints Top-down and bottom-up Transformation Transgenerational TRIZ Universal Design for All Usage-centered Use-centered User-centered Empathic User innovation Value-driven Value sensitive Privacy by Design choice computing controls culture flow leadership management marker methods pattern research science sprint strategy theory thinking Tools Intellectual property Organizations Awards Tools AAD Architectural model Blueprint Comprehensive layout CAD CAID Virtual home design software CAutoD Design quality indicator Electronic design automation Flowchart Mockup Design specification Prototype Sketch Storyboard Technical drawing HTML editor Website wireframe Intellectual
property Community design Design around Design infringement Design patent Fashion design copyright Geschmacksmuster Industrial design rights European Union Organizations American Institute of Graphic Arts Chartered Society of Designers Design and Industries Association Design Council International Forum Design The Design Society Design Research Society Awards European Design Award German Design Award Good Design Award (Museum of Modern Art) Good Design Award (Chicago Athenaeum) Good Design Award (Japan) Graphex IF Product Design Award James Dyson Award Prince Philip Designers Prize Prix Versailles Related topics Aesthetics Agile Concept art Conceptual design Creative industries Cultural icon .design Enterprise architecture Form factor Futures studies Indie design Innovation management Intelligent design Lean startup New product development OODA loop Philosophy of design Process simulation Slow design STEAM fields Unintelligent design Visualization Wicked problem Design brief change classic competition architectural student director education elements and principles engineer firm history knowledge language life load museum paradigm rationale review specification studies studio technology Commons Wikibooks Wikinews Wikiquote Wikisource Wiktionary engineering portal Authority control General Integrated Authority File (Germany) National libraries Spain United States Japan Other Historical Dictionary of Switzerland Retrieved from " " Categories : Design Architectural design Product development Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Articles with short description Articles with long short description Short description is different from Wikidata All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from February 2018 Commons category link is on Wikidata Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with BNE identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers Wikipedia articles with HDS identifiers

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